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The Dangers of DHEA January 12, 2015

Posted by Dreamhealer in Anti-Aging, Breast Cancer, Cancer, Naturopathic Medicine.
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Written by Dr. Adam McLeod, BSc, ND

DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) is often described as a wonder drug that is used by patients interested in its anti-aging effects. As we age the levels of DHEA in the blood start to decrease so the logic was that if patients were given this hormone then they would be able to partially reverse the aging process. There is evidence to suggest that indeed it improves many of the characteristics that we associate with aging.

Supplementation with DHEA is not safe for everyone as it is strongly associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer1,2. In response to this risk, supplement companies began to produce a molecule called 7-keto DHEA, which is a metabolite of DHEA. This was considered a safer alternative to DHEA because it does not break down into estrogen or testosterone4. It is true that when patients take 7-keto DHEA there is no statistically significant increase in hormone levels but this does not make it safe to use with breast cancer.

I have personally seen several patients with active estrogen positive breast cancer who were prescribed 7-keto DHEA by a medical doctor. This is a dangerous combination and it is reckless to prescribe this medication in this clinical situation. 7-keto DHEA is not safe for any patient with estrogen positive breast cancer. There are a number of obvious biochemical reasons for this contraindication. First of all there are absolutely no studies which indicate that this is safe with estrogen positive breast cancer. Secondly, just because the estrogen levels are not elevated does not mean that the estrogen receptor is not being stimulated.

Normally the receptors on the surface of a cell are only stimulated by a few specific molecules. The estrogen receptors are notoriously promiscuous. What this means is that they are stimulated by many different molecules as well as estrogen. One of those molecules is 7-keto DHEA. In other words, even though patients do not have elevations in estrogen levels the estrogen receptors are being directly stimulated by the 7-keto DHEA3. As far as the cancer cells are concerned, they will act as if they are being stimulated by estrogen even though the actual levels of estrogen remain unchanged.

In one study it was conclusively shown that 7-keto DHEA (aka 7-oxo DHEA) is a low affinity ligand activator of estrogen receptors. The estrogen activity in these cancer cell lines were significantly elevated compared to the controls. In this same study, the cancer cells (MCF-7 breast cancer cells) that were treated with 7-keto DHEA grew much faster than the controls. This simple study certainly raises concern about the use of this supplement in cancer patients. It is clearly misleading to state that 7-keto DHEA has all the positive effects of DHEA without any of the negative effects. This is simply not how our cells operate on the biochemical level.

Another obvious concern is that 7-keto DHEA is essentially structurally identical to DHEA. This means that its overall shape is so similar that it will stimulate estrogen receptors the same as if it was DHEA. The estrogen receptors on cancer cells cannot tell the difference between 7-keto DHEA and DHEA. As far as the cancer is concerned it is the same thing. Of course the DHEA will not stimulate these receptors as strongly as estrogen but they still increase the activity which is the complete opposite of what you want to do with estrogen positive breast cancer. Conventional cancer therapies work very hard to reduce estrogen activity as much as possible because this activity acts as a signal for these cancer cells to grow5.

It is important that more patients become aware of this serious concern because it is difficult to sift through the mountains of information on the web. Unfortunately, there are still doctors that are prescribing this medication to estrogen positive breast cancer patients. The simple explanation that estrogen levels are unaffected does not mean that it is safe. Biology is much more complex than simply monitoring the level of a few arbitrary hormones in the blood. There is significant cross talk between these different pathways in cells and this well understood biological concept also applies to the clinical setting.

Dr. Adam McLeod is a Naturopathic Doctor (ND), BSc. (Hon) Molecular biology, First Nations Healer, Motivational Speaker and International Best Selling Author http://www.dreamhealer.com

He currently practices at his clinic, Yaletown Naturopathic Clinic, in Vancouver, BC where he focuses on integrative cancer care. http://www.yaletownnaturopathic.com

References:

1) Tworoger, S. S.; Missmer, S. A.; Eliassen, A. H. et al. (2006). “The association of plasma DHEA and DHEA sulfate with breast cancer risk in predominantly premenopausal women”. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15 (5): 967–71.

2) Key, T.; Appleby, P.; Barnes, I.; Reeves, G. (2002). “Endogenous sex hormones and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of nine prospective studies”. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 94 (8): 606–16.

3) Michael Miller, Kristy K., et al. “DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta.” Steroids 78.1 (2013): 15-25.

4) Lardy, H; Kneer N, Wei Y, Partridge B, Marwah P (1998). “Ergosteroids II: Biologically Active Metabolites and Synthetic Derivatives of Dehydroepiandrosterone”. Steroids 63 (3): 158–165.

5) Janni W, Hepp P. Adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy: Outcomes and safety. Cancer Treat Rev. 2010; 36:249–261.

Naturopathic Medicine and Cancer November 18, 2014

Posted by Dreamhealer in Cancer, Naturopathic Medicine.
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By: Dr. Adam McLeod ND, BSc (Hon)

Naturopathic medicine has a wide range of tools that can be used in conjunction with conventional medicine to effectively treat cancer. Many people have this underlying assumption that naturopathic treatments are not “evidence based” because otherwise their oncologist would have recommended them. The truth is that many of these therapies are extremely well documented by scientific studies and the mainstream scientific community does not dispute their effectiveness. The bottom line is that cancer patients do better when they have an integrative health care team and Naturopathic doctors are an integral part of this team.

When dealing with a complex condition such as cancer it is very important to thoroughly review the entire health history of the patient, not just the diagnosis of cancer. It is essential that as physicians we actually take the time to listen to what the patient is saying. This allows us to develop a custom treatment plan for that individual which addresses the unique circumstances of that patient. Naturopathic doctors are experts at taking the time to listen to the patient and developing a treatment plan for that unique patient.

Chemotherapy and radiation are effective therapies and often it is a race between the death of the cancer cells and the death of healthy cells. Making sure the healthy cells are supplied with adequate nutrients allows patients to endure these harsh therapies with fewer side effects. Very often patients who are adequately supported with the appropriate nutrition and supplements will be able to tolerate additional rounds of chemotherapy and radiation. Ultimately if healthy cells are more likely to survive, this helps stack the odds against cancer cells.

Patients are often reluctant to take any supplements during chemotherapy and radiation because of potential interactions. This is a legitimate concern because there are many negative interactions if the wrong supplement is used. Any Naturopathic Doctor who regularly works with cancer is well aware of these interactions. When the appropriate supplements are used there are profound benefits to cancer patients. These supplements are well supported by scientific evidence and they have been consistently demonstrated to be safe when used in the right context. This is why the blanket statement of “avoid all supplements” is simply incorrect. It is absolutely essential that you have professional guidance from an experienced Naturopathic Doctor when you are picking supplements.

The mainstream medical community is slowly becoming more open to collaborating with Naturopathic Doctors because the evidence for the benefits of an integrative approach to cancer care can no longer be ignored. For years Naturopathic Doctors have been using high dose IV Vitamin C as a cancer therapy and traditional medical doctors considered it to be a nonsense therapy. Recently they have changed their attitude and oncologists are jumping on to the Vitamin C bandwagon. There is no doubt that when used appropriately this can be an effective integrative cancer therapy.

Patients who undergo this therapy tend to experience less significant side effects from the chemotherapy. IV Vitamin C can vastly improve quality of life by increasing appetite, raising platelet counts, easing fatigue and reducing pain. When patients are supported by the appropriate nutrients and supplements, the side effects from chemotherapy are less intense. Studies consistently show that at these high doses, Vitamin C is toxic to cancer cells while protecting healthy cells from the adverse effects of chemotherapy. The evidence indicates that IV Vitamin C is effective when used in conjunction with chemotherapy rather than as a stand-alone therapy. This is just one example of many different effective natural cancer therapies available. There is much more to integrative cancer care than simply IV Vitamin C!

There is no question that there is often a strong emotional component to cancer and this must be addressed for optimal healing to take place. Patients will often be able to directly connect the formation of their cancer with a stressful event in their life. This is not an imaginary connection; there are biological reasons why emotional stress can trigger the formation of cancer. Stress can cause cancer. It is important to point out that this is not a hypothetical concept. This is a statement that is well supported by scientific evidence. The link between cancer and stress is well established and is not debated by the scientific community. Many people are not aware how significant this connection is as medical doctors often disregard this connection despite the body of evidence. Naturopathic doctors not only address the physical components of health, they will also take the time to address the emotional and spiritual components that simply cannot be ignored in patients with cancer.

If you know someone with cancer, make sure you let them know about the potential benefits of seeing a Naturopathic Doctor who focuses on cancer. There are so many amazing tools that Naturopathic medicine has to offer and the public needs to be aware that these therapies exist and that they are effective!

Dr. Adam McLeod is a Naturopathic Doctor (ND), BSc. (Hon) Molecular Biology, First Nations Healer, Motivational Speaker and International Best Selling Author. He currently practices at his clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia where he focuses on integrative cancer treatments.

http://www.yaletownnaturopathic.com

Iron and Anemia in Cancer Patients August 7, 2014

Posted by Dreamhealer in Alternative medicine, Cancer, Healing, Integrative Medicine, Naturopathic Medicine, Research.
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2 comments

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By: Dr. Adam McLeod, ND, BSc

Everyone has seen someone with cancer who looks pale and depleted with energy. This is often due to anemia which means that there are less red blood cells to transport oxygen to tissues in the body. There are a number of different potential causes for this and one of the most common causes is low iron. When a doctor looks at blood work that clearly says “low iron” there is often an immediate response to supplement the patient with iron. However, we should not be so quick to prescribe iron to every cancer patient that is showing signs of anemia.

The interactions between iron and cancer are very complex and altered iron metabolism is considered a key metabolic “hallmark of cancer”1. It is clear that iron has roles in all aspects of cancer development, including the tumour microenvironment and metastasis. As evidenced by the expression pattern of ‘iron genes’ in malignant tumours, it is not simply associated with cancer, but also is indicative of a patient’s chances of survival2.

Our bodies have evolved to tightly partition and limit the amount of available iron. The iron deficiency anemia that is observed in cancer patients may actually be the bodies response to the presence of cancer. By limiting the availability of iron in circulation, there is less available for the cancer to utilize. If the patient is given iron then you are essentially fighting against the bodies effort to lower the iron levels.

There are a number of different studies that clearly show a strong connection between low iron levels and decreased cancer risk. It is well documented that people who regularly donate blood have lower rates of developing cancer3. This is likely connected to decreased iron levels following donation of blood. A popular natural cancer therapy called curcumin, acts as a potent natural chelator of iron5. It is thought that some of the observed anti-cancer properties might be due to the fact that it powerfully sequesters iron away from cancer cells6.

Recent research indicates that tumours create their own iron-rich micro-environment to evade constraints that are imposed by limited systemic iron availability. Cancer cells will sequester iron and it is possible that this allows the cancer cells to mutate more quickly. Iron reacts with oxygen to produce free radicals that damage DNA. Normally this is not desirable, however, this allows cancer cells to adapt more quickly to different conditions when the DNA is being constantly damaged on a low level. This consistent damage from excess iron is thought to increase the mutation rate of the DNA within the cancer cells. This recent evidence for regulation of iron in the tumour micro-environment represents a new paradigm in iron biology4.

Of course there are some situations where iron must be prescribed but it should not be done unnecessarily. Many effective cancer therapies work by actually decreasing the level of iron in the blood. If the red blood cells are reduced in number and smaller than normal (low MCV) then you very likely have iron deficiency anemia. It is very important to also check the level of ferritin to check on your bodies ability to transport iron.

A Naturopathic doctor that works with cancer will take the time to look at your case and will write you a prescription for iron if it is truly indicated. Contact Yaletown Naturopathic Clinic to see if this is the right therapy for you.

Dr. Adam McLeod is a Naturopathic Doctor (ND), BSc. (Hon) Molecular biology, First Nations Healer, Motivational Speaker and International Best Selling Author. He currently practices at his clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia where he focuses on integrative cancer care. http://www.yaletownnaturopathic.com

References:

1) Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell. 2011;144:646–674. [PubMed]

2) Miller LD, et al. An iron regulatory gene signature predicts outcome in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2011;71:6728–6737. [PMC free article]

3) Edgren G, et al. Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:572–579. [PubMed]

4) Torti, Suzy V., and Frank M. Torti. “Iron and cancer: more ore to be mined.” Nature Reviews Cancer 13.5 (2013): 342-355.

5) Jiao Y, et al. Iron chelation in the biological activity of curcumin. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2006;40:1152–1160. [PubMed]

6) Jiao Y, et al. Curcumin, a cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent, is a biologically active iron chelator. Blood. 2009;113:462–469. [PMC free article]

Heat: The Achilles Heel of Cancer June 2, 2014

Posted by Dreamhealer in Alternative medicine, Cancer, Dreamhealer, Healing, Health, Integrative Medicine, naturopathic, Naturopathic Medicine, Naturopathy, Prostate Cancer, Research.
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vancouver naturopathic clinic

Heat: The Achilles Heel of Cancer

Written By: Dr. Adam McLeod, ND

It is a well established fact that cancer cells are vulnerable to heat1,2. On a cellular level it makes intuitive sense that cancer cells would be sensitive to heat. Normal cells are spatially arranged so that heat can be distributed evenly and they will not divide if they are physically in contact with adjacent cells. Cancer cells within a tumour will continue to divide regardless of the proximity of adjacent cells; this is one of the hallmarks of cancer. As a result of this uncontrolled growth, the cells in the tumour become densely packed together and this makes it very difficult for them to effectively distribute heat.

Hyperthermia treatment is rapidly becoming a mainstream therapy for patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation. During these treatments the patients’ core body temperature is artificially raised to mimic a strong fever. This is not a pleasant experience for the patient but it is very effective at weakening the cancer cells. It makes these cancer cells more vulnerable to chemotherapy and radiation.

When any cell is exposed to heat there are immediate biochemical and genetic changes that occur so that the cell can adapt to the new warm environment. One of the most potent responses that allows these cells to survive the heat is the production of heat shock proteins (HSP)3. These HSPs protect components within the cell that are vulnerable to heat damage and during hyperthermia the production of these proteins within cancer cells is what allows them to survive. Currently there is a major push with pharmaceutical companies to develop drugs that inhibit these proteins.

There are several different natural compounds which are well documented heat shock protein inhibitors. These substances are safe when used in the right clinical context and you need to consult a Naturopathic Doctor to know if this is the best therapy for that specific type of cancer. One example is Quercetin, a bioflavonoid that is well documented as a potent inhibitor of heat shock proteins in cancer cells4,5,6,7,8,9.

Cancer cells are naturally very vulnerable to heat based on how densely the cells are packed together. When hyperthermia is combined with Quercetin the results are very dramatic10. In one study on prostate carcinoma they concluded that, “When combined in a treatment protocol with hyperthermia, Quercetin drastically inhibited tumour growth and potently amplified the effects of hyperthermia on two prostate tumour types, PC-3 and DU-145 in vivo. These experiments, thus, suggest the use of Quercetin as a hyperthermia sensitizer in the treatment of prostate carcinoma.”

It is extremely important to point out two things. Firstly, Quercetin is safe with most but not all chemotherapy drugs and you need professional guidance from a Naturopathic Doctor who focuses in cancer to know if this is safe for you. Secondly, the quality of the Quercetin supplement makes a big difference. Generally speaking Quercetin is very poorly absorbed and there are only a few professional brands of sufficient quality that are effective at sensitizing the cancer cells. In some cases, intravenous Quercetin is more appropriate.

The mainstream medical community is changing its tune with regards to hyperthermia. In private hospitals in the United States it is very commonly used because it is so effective. In Canada, there are only a handful of clinics that currently offer this therapy. As the evidence for this therapy accumulates, in the near future hyperthermia combined with these natural approaches will undoubtedly become the standard of care for cancer patients.

Dr. Adam McLeod is a Naturopathic Doctor (ND), BSc. (Hon) Molecular biology, First Nations Healer, Motivational Speaker and International Best Selling Author. He currently practices at his clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia where he focuses on integrative cancer care. http://www.yaletownnaturopathic.com

References:

1. Van der Zee J. Heating the patient: a promising approach? Ann Oncol, 2002. 13(8): p. 1173-84.

2. Van der Zee J and MC Erasmus. Hyperthermia in addition to radiotherapy. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol), 2007. 19(3 Suppl): S18.

3. De Maio A (January 1999). “Heat shock proteins: facts, thoughts, and dreams”. Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 11 (1):1-12.

4.  Hansen, R. K., et al. “Quercetin inhibits heat shock protein induction but not heat shock factor DNA-binding in human breast carcinoma cells.” Biochemical and biophysical research communications 239.3 (1997): 851-856.

5. Gonzalez, Oscar, et al. “The heat shock protein inhibitor Quercetin attenuates hepatitis C virus production.” Hepatology 50.6 (2009): 1756-1764.

6. Wei, Yu-quan, et al. “Induction of apoptosis by quercetin: involvement of heat shock protein.” Cancer Research 54.18 (1994): 4952-4957.

7. Zanini, Cristina, et al. “Inhibition of heat shock proteins (HSP) expression by quercetin and differential doxorubicin sensitization in neuroblastoma and Ewing’s sarcoma cell lines.” Journal of neurochemistry 103.4 (2007): 1344-1354.

8. Hosokawa, Nobuko, et al. “Flavonoids inhibit the expression of heat shock proteins.” Cell structure and function 15.6 (1990): 393-401.

9. Elia, Guiliano, and M. G. Santoro. “Regulation of heat shock protein synthesis by quercetin in human erythroleukaemia cells.” Biochem. J 300 (1994): 201-209.

10. Asea, A., et al. “Effects of the flavonoid drug quercetin on the response of human prostate tumours to hyperthermia in vitro and in vivo.” International journal of hyperthermia 17.4 (2001): 347-356.

 

“My oncologist said that it doesn’t matter what I eat.” May 22, 2014

Posted by Dreamhealer in Alternative medicine, Cancer, Diet, Dreamhealer, Healing, Integrative Medicine, Naturopathic Medicine, Research.
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Written By: Dr. Adam McLeod, ND, BSc (Hon)

I see a lot of patients with cancer at my clinic. The vast majority of my patients tell me that their oncologist bluntly told them that it doesn’t matter what they eat during their chemotherapy or radiation treatments. Some of these oncologists are so ingrained with this belief and they give zero dietary advice because they are convinced that diet will not make a difference.

As a molecular biologist this rationale made no sense to me. During these aggressive therapies every cell in the body is under an enormous amount of stress. The metabolic demands on your cells are obviously increased so that they can survive in the presence of these toxins. If the metabolic demands are increased then they clearly need nutrients to supply this demand. There is a big difference in the nutrient content of a Twinkie compared to an apple. Logic dictates that this difference in nutrients should make a big difference when your cells are bathed in chemotherapy and radiation in an effort to kill cancer.

Could all of these oncologists be wrong? They are very educated and if they feel so passionately about role of diet (or lack thereof) in cancer then surely there must be a scientific reason for this. I decided to look at peer-reviewed articles that study how diets affect patients during chemotherapy and radiation. It turns out that this attitude from oncologists is not based on logic or scientific fact. The evidence is clear; diet makes a big difference when patients are on chemotherapy and radiation. Oncologists who claim to be practicing evidence based medicine need to stop telling patients that it makes no difference because this is not what the evidence shows.

Many studies have been done on humans and rats, which clearly show positive affects from diet during chemotherapy. When given a diet that is rich in nutrients, rats are able to tolerate significantly higher doses of chemotherapy and radiation1,2. This is consistent with the ultimate goal of keeping your cells strong so that chemotherapy can be better tolerated by the patient. A recent article in the journal “The Oncologist” breaks down the different mechanisms as to how caloric restriction can enhance the effects of chemotherapy and radiation3. The conclusion of their research is: “Caloric restriction by fasting is likely an effective method to potentiate the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy and radiation therapy because of the overlapping induction of molecular profiles, and it may also provide a beneficial means of improving the overall health and metabolic profiles of patients. At this time, clinical trials evaluating caloric restriction as a complementary therapy in the treatment of cancer are warranted.” Caloric restriction is a method where the patient maintains their nutrient status while decreasing the number of calories that they are ingesting. Pilot trials have been completed on the ketogenic diet and how it affects the quality of life in advanced cancer patients. The results clearly show that specific diets can improve quality of life in these patients4. These are just a few examples of how different diets can impact your health during chemotherapy.

Diet alone is not a cure for cancer but when used properly it can help patients maintain their nutrient status during chemotherapy and radiation. I know that oncologists sincerely want the best for their patients and I have great respect for the work that they do. However, when they are asked about diet it is probably better that they say, “I don’t know” rather than “Don’t waste your time with diets because it won’t make a difference.” Unfortunately, oncologists do not get any training in nutrition and its role in cancer therapy. Their lack of training in nutrition is very apparent when you consider their position on the subject despite the evidence showing that it can be an effective tool6.

The bottom line is that diet does make a difference as this is what the evidence shows. There is no question that a healthy balanced diet will make it easier for patients to tolerate chemotherapy and radiation. Even though many of these patients have low energy levels during chemotherapy it is important to point out that research indicates patients are willing and able to adhere to specific diets during chemotherapy5. Anyone who eats a low quality diet will have lower energy and consequently a lower quality of life (recall the movie “Supersize Me”). This is common sense and this concept obviously applies to those who are undergoing chemotherapy and radiation. It is not uncommon in my practice for patients to be going through chemotherapy and radiation with minimal side effects because they are nutritionally supported during this process. If you eat a high quality diet under the supervision of a Naturopathic doctor (ND), then your cells with be better nourished to deal with the stresses of cancer and the aggressive treatments associated with cancer.

Dr. Adam McLeod is a Naturopathic Doctor (ND), BSc. (Hon) Molecular biology, First Nations Healer, Motivational Speaker and International Best Selling Author http://www.dreamhealer.com

He currently practices at his clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia. http://www.yaletownnaturopathic.com

References:

1)    Bounous G, Le Bel E, Shuster J, Gold P, Tahan WT, Bastin E. Dietary protection during radiation therapy..  PubMed PMID: 807995.

2) Richard F. Branda, Zhuan Chen, Elice M. Brooks, Shelly J. Naud, Thomas D. Trainer, John J. McCormack, Diet modulates the toxicity of cancer chemotherapy in rats, Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, Volume 140, Issue 5, November 2002, Pages 358-368, ISSN 0022-2143

3) Champ, Colin E., et al. “Nutrient restriction and radiation therapy for cancer treatment: when less is more.” The oncologist 18.1 (2013): 97-103.

4) Schmidt, Melanie, et al. “Effects of a ketogenic diet on the quality of life in 16 patients with advanced cancer: A pilot trial.” Nutr Metab (Lond) 8.1 (2011): 54.

5) von Gruenigen, Vivian E., et al. “Feasibility of a lifestyle intervention for ovarian cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.” Gynecologic oncology 122.2 (2011): 328-333.

6) Rock, C. L., Doyle, C., Demark-Wahnefried, W., Meyerhardt, J., Courneya, K. S., Schwartz, A. L., Bandera, E. V., Hamilton, K. K., Grant, B., McCullough, M., Byers, T. and Gansler, T. (2012), Nutrition and physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 62: 242–274. doi: 10.3322/caac.21142

Dreamhealer Clinic is now open! April 26, 2014

Posted by Dreamhealer in Healing.
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 dreamhealer clinic

I am very excited to announce the opening of my new clinic in Vancouver, BC. For the last 10 years I have been studying at university about how the body works on a molecular and physiological level. Finally I have the opportunity to integrate all the amazing tools that Naturopathic medicine has to offer with energy medicine.

Energy medicine blends together very well with Naturopathic medicine to optimize the patients healing. At the clinic I often combine energy medicine with acupuncture. The acupuncture helps to stimulate the meridians and when combined with energy medicine this can rapidly restore the flow of energy in the body.

To read more about the clinic, visit the website: http://www.yaletownnaturopathic.com

If you would like to book an appointment, please send an email to appointments@yaletownnaturopathic.com.

If you want updates on the clinic make sure you follow us on twitter and like us on facebook!

Dr. Adam McLeod, BSc, ND

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